You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! The absence of civil institutions and democratically elected government means that there are none of the usual administrative structures by which governing bodies can make decisions on societal risk and long term planning on behalf of the Goma population. A scientific risk assessment will be needed to constrain the hazards from a lava eruption in Goma and an eruption within Lake Kivu, as well as other types of events. The rise in the lava lake level increased the risk of a flow breaking out down one of the flanks as in The two teams, who have worked in full collaboration with one another, have published their reports,1,2 including one by P. Why did aid agencies ignore all their rhetoric about responding to the needs of people, and just give what they thought the people needed, not what they said they wanted?

A detailed analysis of the conflict and humanitarian crisis, including the policies towards Goma of outside governments and relief bodies, was outside the terms of reference of this report. Markets quickly reopened after the eruption, and supplies of vegetables and fruit were soon re-established. The fluoride concentration on 21 January was measured at 4. Many refugees failed to reach health facilities, and the relatively few health workers on the scene were overwhelmed. Scientists agree that volcano monitoring and contingency planning are essential for forecasting and responding to future trends. This reliance is unchanged today and the prevention of enteric disease outbreaks in a future eruption has to be a leading priority for the health sector, relief agencies and NGO’s.

The results of the epidemiological surveillance of attendances at primary health care facilities were studied. Volcanic risk management is untested in this socio-political context.

However, weekly meetings with the Governor have been instigated, as have regular slots for the GVO volcanologists on Radio Okapi. Money does not even have to be nyiragonggo free though the food, pots and sheets were. A full survey of the lake edge for gas emissions is warranted Fig.

Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo

Latrine pits should be dug deeper, but investigation of their porosity and contamination of the lake is needed. There was a lot of lava to clear from the airport runway, for instance; there were roads to be reopened. It suffered an economic downturn for the next years as the tourist trade collapsed with few visitors.


The Virunga Mountains stretch from east to west for about 80 km. The main descriptive points in his report23 are as follows:. Video footage shows a remarkable scene of people flooding over this narrow part of the flow and running to prevent their feet from getting burned a few minor foot burns were treated at Goma hospital.

The largest was Itig camp near the airport, containing around people, where the eeuption were made from recycled galvanized metal sheets collected from the lava flow debris Fig.

Nyiragongo is indeed known for its high emission of sulphur dioxide SO2 and Meteosat-8 has two channels, the WV7. The lack of security and fear of violence, the absence of democratic institutions, are the main issues affecting human vulnerability in this and future volcanic crises.

Mount Nyiragongo eruption case study – Document in A Level and IB Geography

Wooden houses very close to the edge of the former lava flow survived, whilst the radiant heat from the larger flow ignited all adjacent buildings or their interiors. According to US experts, volcanic ash at high altitudes normally has a distinctive positive IR The humanitarian and political situation also has a close bearing on the resources that can be brought to volcano monitoring and the forecasting of eruptive activity, as well as the responses of the population to the communication of volcanic risk and warnings to evacuate in a crisis.

The mechanism for the release of lava nyiragonngo the eruption was more clearly a drainage phenomenon, with radial fissuring around the summit crater and a high level of very fluid lava in the lake.

Yet the aid community in Goma continued to hold to some moral high ground about giving cash.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

Stufy people of Goma were clearly right: No lorries or stores are needed, and the logistics are certainly simpler. The emissions also produced acid rain.

For this major and crucial need, only cash would do. The earliest European explorers were drawn to the red glow of its crater against the night sky, and an expedition eventually forged a way through almost impenetrable vegetation to reach the summit in A nyiragogo at two houses whose gardens adjoined the water showed potentially lethal levels of carbon dioxide at the water surface where people swam.


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Lava continued to move along the middle of the main flow next day, although the edges had solidified. As far as Lake Kivu is concerned, the most reasonably foreseeable worst scenario would be for the eruptive fissures to extend into the lake along the same line as the fractures from the Nyiragongo crater to Goma, which opened in January There is abundant evidence from around the globe that post-disaster economies revive quickly if everyone has a little money to spend.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

At least 45 people died and s are http: Why was there no outbreak of enteric disease after the 22002 January eruption? However, the massive fissuring of the flank of the volcano in Januaryextending 18 km from the crater to Goma, is strongly suspected by scientists to have a tectonic or rifting origin, at least in part, which implies that the volcano has moved to a new and more hazardous state, with the risk in future eruptions of fractures and lava emissions arising in Goma itself, or even deep within Lake Kivu.

GFE Consulting, Marchhttp: There is sufficient scope for a full-time post based in Goma, and the development of project proposals for work on the health aspects of the crisis:.

Mount Nyiragongo

The water network across the city was broken by both lava flows Fig. Although engineering measures appear on the list of headings under natural disaster mitigation, and are important for preventing floods, for example, there is little scope for measures such as building barriers against lava flows at Nyiragongo volcano. The potential for carbon dioxide emissions has been known for a long time, as there are numerous dry gas vents in the area, especially near Lake Kivu, that emit carbon dioxide, and occasionally lead to deaths in humans.

At the UN OCHA Scientific Co-ordinating Committee meeting in April, a plan of work was agreed, the results of which would be vlcano into a quantified risk assessment by a team of experts meeting in Goma planned for late Appendix 2.